On the safety system of foreign food packaging

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Brief introduction of foreign food packaging safety system

developed countries in Europe and the United States, especially the United States and France, attach great importance to packaging safety, and they are also the countries with the most perfect packaging safety regulations and safety system in the world. Whether military ammunition packaging, hazardous chemical packaging, or food safety packaging, there are a series of safety regulations, perfect management system, and safety action plans. History overview: Dr. Paul McAfee of Europe and America published his initial experience on his personal page. Developed countries are the pioneers of food packaging safety and health in the world. In 1804, France invented canned food. In 1812, the United States began to produce canned food and began to pay attention to the impact of packaging material tin on food safety. In 1875, Britain passed the first food and drug regulations, and then France announced the corresponding food hygiene regulations. In 1902, the United States Department of Agriculture began to investigate food safety issues and report to the president. In 1906, the United States first introduced two safety and health regulations (food and drug regulations) on packaged food. In 1931, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was officially established, thus embarking on the track of legal management. In 1958, the European Commission for food regulation was established. After more than 100 years of development, human society has finally established a perfect food packaging safety management system. Taking the United States as an example, its food packaging safety system is based on the federal and state laws of the United States and the statutory responsibilities of the industry for the production of safe food. The common characteristics of federal and state laws are scientific, strict and based on a certain degree of flexibility. Generally speaking, law enforcement is to form a complementary, independent, complex and effective food safety assurance system through the full cooperation of authorized agencies of the federal government and the active participation of state and local governments, so that American food safety has a high degree of public trust. In order to effectively implement the food safety system act and ensure high public trust in food packaging safety, developed countries in Europe and the United States have established corresponding management institutions. For example, France has a National Certification Commission, a National Association of label appraisers, CNLC, the Ministry of health, the Ministry of agriculture, and the National Institute of specialty products; In the United States, the food and Drug Administration (FDA), the U.S. Food Safety and inspection service (FSIS), the animal and plant health inspection service (APHIS), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other institutions have undertaken the responsibility of protecting the safety and health of consumption strengthening innovation drivers. These national institutions or subordinate institutions and offices have the tasks of food packaging safety, including research, education, prevention, supervision, standard setting Emergency response and control of disease outbreak, etc. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the reason why the United States has the safest food and packaged food in the world to supply its own country and countries is because all regions, states and countries have strict management and monitoring systems covering the field of food production, packaging and distribution. According to the responsibilities stipulated by the laws of the state, all regions and all States, through the joint efforts of food/packaging inspectors, microbiologists, packaging experts and food scientists, public health agencies, federal departments and agencies have continuously managed and monitored food safety, ensuring the safety and hygiene of packaged food. The action plan of the president of the United States and the national law center of France are the biggest features of food packaging safety in developed countries in Europe and the United States. For example, in January, 1997, the US president's food packaging safety action plan was published. Later, as part of the food safety plan, the Ministry of Health (DHS), the Ministry of agriculture (USDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) immediately submitted a report to the president, requesting to strengthen the control of food packaging production. On October 2, 1997, the president announced the action plan of "ensuring the safety of imported and domestic fruits and vegetables" to ensure that fruits and vegetables meet the highest health and safety standards. As part of this plan, the president instructed the Secretary of health and the Secretary of agriculture to cooperate with the agricultural organization to release the good food source specification (GAP) and good manufacturing practice (GMP) guidelines for fresh fruits and vegetables as soon as possible. Therefore, FDA and USDA jointly issued the "Industry Guide - Guide to minimize microbiological food safety hazards of fruits and vegetables". The "Industry Guide" pointed out the food safety and microbiological hazards of most fresh fruits and vegetables sold to consumers in unprocessed or minimally processed forms, as well as the common implementation regulations for growth, harvest, washing, finishing, packaging and transportation, gaps and GMPs. This guide is not a regulation and has no legal effect. It is only the first step to improve the safety of fresh fruits and vegetables from farm to table, with emphasis on the production and packaging of fruits and vegetables on farms. Food safety is not limited to farm production, but lies in all stages of the food chain from farm to table. To this end, the FDA food code of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration provides state and local governments with operating procedures for food handling and packaging in various retail locations. According to the president's food packaging safety action plan, FDA sought help from various food packaging protection conferences, such as state, local, federal government, academic institutions, consumer and industry representative forums, and proposed measures. As part of the president's safety action plan, the "fight bacteria" education program has promoted and raised consumers' awareness of food safety in reducing the microbial contamination of retail food or fresh food during June and July. Another aspect of the president's safety action plan is to identify and support priority areas of food packaging and help fill the gaps in food safety knowledge. In addition, an important aspect of the safety action plan is the long-term risk assessment and research of fresh food. The overall goal of the study is to intervene and prevent strategies to reduce the occurrence of foodborne diseases, and also to carry out innovative research on the safety of packaging materials. The characteristics of food packaging safety system in developed countries in Europe and the United States have their own characteristics, but they also have some common ground. France is the largest agricultural country in the EU, accounting for about 1/3 of the total output of the EU. The United States is a large agricultural country in the Americas and a major exporter of agricultural products and food. Its food packaging safety monitoring system has the following characteristics. 1. First of all, the rights of law enforcement, legislative and judicial institutions should be separated to ensure the scientificity, transparency and public participation of legislative decisions. The federal and state laws of the United States (France is a province) are based on strict, flexible and scientific laws. These federal and state laws stipulate that food production and packaging enterprises have the legal responsibility to produce safe food in accordance with legal obligations. The federal government, state and local governments have complementary and independent internal responsibilities in the legal management of food and food processing. 2. Law enforcement justice the constitution entrusts the government with the responsibilities of law enforcement, legislation and judicature, which are undertaken by law enforcement, legislation and judicial institutions in the national food safety system. As the legislative body of the government, the Congress should formulate and promulgate decrees to ensure food safety; Congress also authorizes law enforcement agencies to implement these decrees, which can be implemented by formulating and implementing regulations. When the implementation of regulations and guidelines causes disputes, the judicial organ should make a fair ruling. In the United States, laws, decrees and presidential executive orders form a complete system to ensure openness and transparency to the public. 3. Five principles generally speaking, the food packaging safety system is established according to the following five guiding principles: the regulatory decision-making of food safety is based on science; The government has the duty to enforce the law impartially; Only safe and healthy food can be sold on the market; Manufacturers, distributors, importers and others should abide by the above principles, otherwise they will bear the legal responsibilities; The process of formulating laws and regulations is transparent and open to the public. 4. International cooperation in the food packaging safety system of the United States and France, international cooperation and science based safety prevention and risk analysis are taken as an important basis for national food safety policies and decisions. This is the policy of food safety implemented by the United States and France for a long time. In terms of cooperation, on the one hand, through cooperation with international organizations, such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission CAC, the world health organization who, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization FAO, the European Union and so on, we can solve technical problems, emergencies, food safety incidents and so on; On the other hand, through cooperation with experts from government agencies and consultation or cooperation with other scientists, provide technical and scientific recommendations to regulators; Emphasize the early warning system of food pathogenic bacteria; Institutions authorized to formulate regulations shall modify regulations and guidelines according to the needs of technological development, knowledge updating and consumer protection. The food and packaging safety agency of the U.S. government is responsible to the president, Congress, courts and the public. There are five major food packaging safety management agencies of the U.S. government, each of which has its own functional scope and safety responsibilities. 1. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the U.S. Food and drug administration is subordinate to the U.S. Department of health. FDA's management functions include: all domestic and imported packaged food (but not meat and poultry) and drugs, bottled water and wine with alcohol content less than 7%. Its safety responsibilities are: to implement food packaging safety laws and manage domestic and imported food and packaging except meat and poultry; Inspect the physical, chemical and microbial contamination of food processing plants and food warehouses, collect and analyze samples; Be responsible for summarizing and verifying the safety of food additives and pigment additives before the products are put on the market; Summarize and verify the safety of veterinary drugs to the animals used and to the people who eat the animal food; Monitor the safety of animal feed as food production; Formulate the United States Food Code (including packaging), regulations, guidelines and instructions, and cooperate with States to apply these codes, regulations, guidelines and instructions to manage milk, shellfish and retail food factories, such as restaurants and grocery stores; Modern Codex Alimentarius can be used as a reference for retailers, nursing homes and other institutions on how to prepare food and prevent foodborne diseases; Establish good food processing operation procedures and other production standards, such as factory hygiene, packaging requirements, ha conservative estimation CCP plan (hazard analysis and key control points); Cooperate with foreign governments to ensure the safety of imported food; Require processors to recall unsafe food and monitor these recall actions to take corresponding law enforcement actions; Carry out research on food packaging safety; Training on safety handling procedures for Industry and consumer food. 2. The United States Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) is subordinate to the United States Department of agriculture. The functions of FSIS include: supervising and managing domestic and imported meat, poultry and related products, such as dishes containing meat and poultry

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